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In an earlier blog “Oncogenes responsible for species differentiation” it was shown that oncogenes seem to play a prominent role in embryogenesis and also in cancer cases. Also oncogenes seem to be involved in excessive electrical activity in cells.

The evidence is mounting that overhead power lines can cause cancers, especially in children because they are more susceptible to electromagnetic radiation. The official view is that there is no risk to children living more than 50 meters from high voltage power lines.

Childhood leukaemia and distance from power lines in California: a population-based case-control study

Again the official view is that living close to cell phone towers does not cause cancer. For instance the American Cancer Society says:

Cell phones communicate with nearby cell towers mainly through radiofrequency (RF) waves, a form of energy in the electromagnetic spectrum between FM radio waves and microwaves. Like FM radio waves, microwaves, visible light, and heat, they are forms of non-ionizing radiation. This means they do not directly damage the DNA inside cells, which is how stronger (ionizing) types of radiation such as x-rays, gamma rays, and ultraviolet (UV) light are thought to be able to cause cancer.

So what are we to make of the following news report from CBS Sacramento Parents Blame Elementary School’s Cell Tower After 4th Student Diagnosed With Cancer

Maybe the American Cancer Society should take a look at the following research paper which found that the PVF of the hypothalamus is sensitive to radiofrequency radiation. The c-Fos protein is synthesized from the Fos Proto-Oncogene. That means that it is responsible for normal cell proliferation. Radiofrequency radiation changed the expression of the c-Fos protein which would have to raise the question whether it could cause the uncontrolled cell proliferation involved in cancer cases.

The Effects of Single and Repeated Exposure to 2.45 GHz Radiofrequency Fields on c-Fos Protein Expression in the Paraventricular Nucleus of Rat Hypothalamus

PESTICIDES

Coincidentally comes this report from the little town of Sainte-Pazanne near Nantes in France. Pediatric cancers in Sainte-Pazanne: three new confirmed cases and new reports It seems there have been 12 cases of pediatric cancers (mostly leukemia) in Sainte-Pazanne and surrounding areas and the residents have no idea what is causing it. Some speculate the power lines, some speculate pesticides may be the cause because Sainte-Pazanne is in an agricultural area. It turns out that numerous pesticides affect Fos proto-oncogene expression as well.

Effect of dimethoate on the expression of c-fos gene in skeletal muscle

Dioxin Induces Expression of c-fos and c-jun Proto-Oncogenes and a Large Increase in Transcription Factor AP-1

Atrazine potentiation of arsenic trioxide-induced cytotoxicity and gene expression in human liver carcinoma cells (HepG2)

Hexachlorobenzene-Induced Early Changes in Ornithine Decarboxylase and Protein Tyrosine Kinase Activities, Polyamines and c-Myc, c-Fos and c-Jun Proto-Oncogenes in Rat Liver

Effect of different convulsants on calmodulin levels and proto-oncogene c-fos expression in the central nervous system

Effect of gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane and its isomers on proto-oncogene c-fos expression in brain.

c-fos and ornithine decarboxylase gene expression in brain as early markers of neurotoxicity

Anticonvulsant activity of calmodulin antagonist W-7 in convulsions induced by lindane and BayK-8644: effects in c-fos expression.

Use of c‐Src and c‐Fos knockout mice for the studies on the role of c‐Src kinase signaling in the expression of toxicity of TCD

C-fos mRNA Induction in the Central and Peripheral Nervous Systems of Diisopropyl Phosphorofluoridate (DFP)-Treated Hens

Peripheral ChE Inhibition Modulates Brain Monoamines Levels and c-fos Oncogene in Mice Subjected to a Stress Situation

CIGARETTE SMOKE

It seems that cigarette smoke also affects the expression of Fos proto-oncogene and other proto-oncogenes. Is it possible that all these children in Sainte Pazanne who have developed pediatric cancer all live in households with heavy smokers, or their mother was a heavy smoker while they were a fetus in her womb?!

Expression of c-fos in Quiescent Swiss 3T3 Cells Exposed to Aqueous Cigarette Smoke Fractions

Effects of Cadmium on Hepatocellular DNA Damage, Proto-Oncogene Expression and Apoptosis in Rats

A Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase-regulated Akt-Independent Signaling Promotes Cigarette Smoke-induced FRA-1 Expression

 

Acute effects of nicotine on restraint stress-induced anxiety-like behavior, c-Fos expression, and corticosterone release in mice

 

The Fos family of transcription factors and their role in tumourigenesis

FRA-1 Proto-Oncogene Induces Lung Epithelial Cell Invasion and Anchorage-Independent Growth In vitro, but Is Insufficient to Promote Tumor Growth In vivo

Induction of the c-jun proto-oncogene by a protein kinase c-dependent mechanism during exposure of human epidermal keratinocytes to ethanol

Progressive rise of c fos expression from premalignant to malignant lesions of oral cavity

Early atherosclerotic lesions in infancy: role of parental cigarette smoking

Downregulation of microRNA expression in the lungs of rats exposed to cigarette smoke

Cryptic brain cell injury caused by fetal nicotine exposure is associated with persistent elevations of c-fos protooncogene expression

ELECTRONIC E-CIGARETTES

There is not a great deal of data about electronic cigarettes but it is reasonable certain that they are just as carcinogenic as passive smoking and affect expression of Fos proto-oncogene.

Acute effects of nicotine on restraint stress-induced anxiety-like behavior, c-Fos expression, and corticosterone release in mice

Regulation of Sox2 and stemness by nicotine and electronic-cigarettes in non-small cell lung cancer

Cigarette sidestream smoke induces histone H3 phosphorylation via JNK and PI3K/Akt pathways, leading to the expression of proto-oncogenes

MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING (MRI)

There is a reasonable amount of data to convince that MRI scans themselves actually affect the expression of Fos proto-oncogene and other proto-oncogenes. There appears to be no research data where MRI scan was done on a healthy brain and then tests made to see if it has affected proto-oncogene expression, but there is enough data that indicates that expression of proto-oncogenes are correlated with MRI scans.  Don’t have too many of them!!! In fact I personally know of a sculptor in Paris who went to London and had his entire body scanned with MRI in order to make of his body a work of art. He called his creation Anthopomorphic Man. He was dead from leukemia within ten years.

Expression of pituitary tumour transforming gene (PTTG) and fibroblast growth factor‐2 (FGF‐2) in human pituitary adenomas: relationships to clinical tumour behaviour

Specific Gene-Expression Profiles of Noncancerous Liver Tissue Predict the Risk for Multicentric Occurrence of Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Hepatitis C Virus–Positive Patients

Metastatic Prolactinoma: Effect of Octreotide, Cabergoline, Carboplatin and Etoposide; Immunocytochemical Analysis of Proto-Oncogene Expression

Transient MRI-detected water apparent diffusion coefficient reduction correlates with c-fos mRNA but not hsp70 mRNA induction during focal cerebral ischemia in rats

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