THE REASONABLE INEFFECTIVENESS OF MATHEMATICS IN NEUROSCIENCE

Abstract

One of the leading theories about consciousness is Integrated Information Theory (IIT) which presents a mathematical equation that will calculate a Φ value based on probability distributions of the brain as a whole and its various regions that perform different functions. This Φ value then generates a multi-dimensional shape in a hypothetical space called qualia space which actually defines our conscious experience. As its name suggests IIT relies heavily on the reasoning that led to information theory and digital computing and telecommunications. It is argued that as numbers do not exist in Nature it is impossible for an organic brain to perform as a digital computer. However electromagnetic radiation (EMR) does exist in Nature and EMR is capable of communicating information. A theory is presented that information in the brain is communicated via brainwaves at the speed of light and that the brain is in fact an electronic device that acts as an analog computer.

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WHY AI WILL NEVER SURPASS HUMAN INTELLIGENCE

A paper entitled “The unreasonable effectiveness of deep learning in artificial intelligence” argues that the way forward towards achieving general AI, that is to say a human level intelligence, is to copy how an organic brain does if for humans. The paper argues that AI has to move from a very limited 2D-space which is referred to as Flatland to a tera-dimensional space that represents the million billion synapses between the neurons in the cortex of the human brain. It is pointed out that the move from 2-D AI to tera-dimensional AI is actually a move in the wrong direction if they ever hope to achieve general AI. The fact is that although there are a million billion synapses between the neurons in the cortex, human consciousness is one dimensional or holistic. In order to achieve general AI the machine will have to do everything a human can do where there are no gaps or seams in the output. A model of the human brain is offered where different sections of the cortex are specialized for different functions and these disparate regions communicate with each other electronically at the speed of light via brainwaves and this is how the brain generates a global holistic 1-dimensional consciousness in us. Also as numbers don’t exist in Nature an organic brain, unlike deep learning, generates intelligent output without the aid of numerical programs or statistics.

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THE ELECTRONIC WAVEFORM OF ACTION POTENTIALS IN THE BRAIN

Abstract

A new research paper has detected a "never-before-seen" waveform in the action potentials in the pyramidal neurons in the cortex of the brain which are believed to be modulated by neurotransmitters in the synaptic clefts of the dendrites which involve complex variations in the spikes of electric flux of both sodium and calcium positively charged ions. Previously the spikes were thought to be generated by typical all-or-none flow of sodium ions as the action potential propagates along the axon and were not graded in any way. This new finding indicates the waveform of the action potentials carry information which would enable the neural network to perform logic gate type processing like conventional computers. It is argued that as numbers don‘t exist in Nature it is impossible for an organic computer to execute a numerical code, and the complex variations in amplitude and frequency of the waveforms indicate that the brain is an organic electronic device where the neurons are able to classify linearly non-separable inputs.

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